Trout is referred to some species under the subfamily Salmoninae which are fishes that can be found in freshwater and saltwater or both. The well known salmon is one member of the trout family, and unlike other trout members it prefers to stay in saltwater.
Here are some highlights on famous members of the trout family explained in an alphabetical order
#1 – Adriatic trout, Salmo obtusirostris
Other name(s): Adriatic salmon, soft mouth trout, soft muzzled trout. This is both a freshwater and saltwater fish which comes from genus Salmo, the salmonid fish species.
Adriatic trout can be found endemic in Western Balkan rivers of the South East European area. They are considered as a favorite game fish, which are chased for sport by fishermen for recreation and fun.
Physical characteristics: extended muzzle with a small and soft mouth. They are large sized and possess high body depth. Body colors are mostly a combination of red and green with black dots. Unlike the brown trout, Adriatic trout does not have vertical stripes on its body
#2 – Brook trout, Salvelinus fontinalis
Other name(s): Speckled trout, spotted trout, coaster trout, squaretail, mountain trout, char. Brook trout are from the genus Salvelinus. The brook trout is actually not a trout, but it is a char like the other so called trout fishes; lake trout, Dolly Varden trout and the arctic char.
Brook trout can be found in clear water streams or brooks (that is why they are called after), spring ponds and lakes. It lives in a wide area of the eastern part of North America, but is also spread southwards of the region.
Physical characteristics: It has a greenish brown color with a unique marble like pattern of yellow spots across the whole trunk which can extend to the back fin or even to the tail. It has a reddish belly and lower fin. These lower fins are showing a white leading border. When spawning, the belly of the male becomes extremely orange to red. A maximum recorded length and weight of this fish is 86 cm and 6.6 kg respectively.
#3 – Brown trout, Salmo trutta
Other name(s): German brown trout, brownie, lake trout. Brown trout is of the same species of the sea trout. The difference is in their habitat, where the brown trout is more a freshwater fish, while the sea trout is an anadromous migrating fish, where it lives in the sea but spawn in fresh waters.
Brown trout is native to Europe and Asia, but you can also find them stocked in lands far from the sea like Estonia and Greece. The best area for brown trout fishing in the state is located in the White River, Arkansas where you can find plenty of resorts that provides you with various trout fishing facilities.
This brown trout is the most popular game fish. The largest brown trout ever caught weighed 40 pounds and 4 ounces, from the Little Red River, Arkansas in 1992, which is a record held by Howard Collin. Brown trout grow fast, since they eat almost everything; larvae, pupae, nymphs and adult insects. Larger trout even eats small fishes, frogs and snakes. A lot of brown trout are able to achieve a weight that averages between 12 – 20 pounds and some are able to reach an age of 20 years.
Physical characteristics: It has a brownish to gold color on its back with a cream to white color belly. Their color combination patterns are yellow, gray, black and sometimes with red spots. These round spots have always a white border. Between the back and the middle spin you can find an obvious spotted fat gland. On the other hand, at its square formed tail you do not see any spot or other marks on its back, which make them different to other trout
#4 – Cutthroat trout, Oncorhynchus clarkii
Other name(s): Clark’s trout, Yellowstone cutthroat trout, short-tailed trout, red-throated trout, Colorado River cutthroat trout. This freshwater fish from the genus Oncorrhynchus has probably around 15 subspecies with different names, which all of them are hunted as game
Cutthroat trout is native to the western part of North America. The cutthroat evolved into many subspecies and resides along the Pacific Northwest coast, in the Cascade Range, the Great Basin and all through the Rocky Mountains. Some of them are anadromous population, but the majority of the subspecies are true non-migratory freshwater fish.
Physical characteristics: This fish can be found in many sizes, colors and habitats. Depending on subspecies, the basic color on its back may range from golden, grey to green. The distinctive diagnostic feature of the cutthroat is the red, pink or orange strip under its lower jaw.
#5 – Flathead trout, Salmo platycephalus
Other name(s): Ala balik, Turkish trout. This is an endemic population in the south-eastern part of Turkey. It resides in three streams of the Zamanti River branch in the Seyhan River basin. In spite of their copious population, they are subject to habitat loss due to its small range. Another threat is the predation of young rainbow trout introduced to this region.
This population decline is categorized as critically endangered and since it is a unique form of trout derived from the brown trout, it needs some protection.
#6 – Golden trout, Oncorhynchus aguabonita
Other name(s): Kern river trout, California golden trout. Golden trout, native to California is actually a subspecies of the Rainbow trout. It resides in the Golden Trout Creek, Volcano Creek and the South Fork Kern River.
It is pity that this species is at the edge for being specified as threatened. The cause of this population decline is the introduction of brook trout that wins the battle in getting food, introduction of the brown trout that makes them a prey and the hybridization with the introduced rainbow trout.
In spite of their population decline, the golden trout once had its record of 70 cm long and 5.1 kg weight which was caught by Charles S. Reed in 1948 from Cook Lake in the Wind River Range.
Physical characteristics: The specific feature is its golden flanks with a “parr marks” on both sides, which is a red, horizontal line along the body of the trout with 10 dark oval marks. The back, side and anal fins are marked with a white edge. Their average size ranges from 15 – 30 cm.
#7 – Rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss
Other name(s): Black spotted trout, steelhead, silver trout, bow trout. This species is native to the rivers of the Pacific Ocean in both the Asian and North American side. Rainbow trout are introduced as food as well as for sport to more than 45 countries in the world. Rainbow trout is considered a fastwater fish, which prefers the swift runs and riffle areas of streams
Introduced rainbow trout in some region such as Australia, South America and Southern Europe are contributing negative impacts to the native fish species. This is by making the native fish as food, out compete them in food race, transmitting some contagious diseases and hybridization with other related species.
Physical characteristics: Rainbow trout possess a typical trout shape and spins with fat glands. The square shaped tail has black spots spread over the entire tail with 10 – 12 rays on its anal side. It has a white mouth and gums.